## Copley MedalCheck all the winners of Copley Medal. |

Year | Winner | Winner Work | |
---|---|---|---|

2013 | Andre Geim |
For his numerous scientific contributions and, in particular, for initiating research on two\u2010dimensional atomic crystals and their artificial heterostructures. | |

2012 | John E. Walker |
For his ground-breaking work on bioenergetics, discovering the mechanism of ATP synthesis in the mitochondrion. | |

2011 | Dan McKenzie |
For his seminal contributions to the understanding of geological and geophysical phenomena including tectonic plates. | |

2010 | Tomas Lindahl |
For his seminal contributions to the understanding of the biochemistry of DNA repair. | |

2010 | David Cox |
For his seminal contributions to the theory and applications of statistics. | |

2009 | Martin Evans |
For his seminal work on embryonic stem cells in mice, which revolutionised the field of genetics. | |

2008 | Roger Penrose |
For his beautiful and original insights into many areas of mathematics and mathematical physics. Sir Roger has made outstanding contributions to general relativity theory and cosmology, most notably for his work on black holes and the Big Bang. | |

2007 | Robert May, Baron May of Oxford |
For his beautiful and original insights into many areas of mathematics and mathematical physics. Sir Roger has made outstanding contributions to general relativity theory and cosmology, most notably for his work on black holes and the Big Bang. | |

2006 | Stephen Hawking |
For his outstanding contribution to theoretical physics and theoretical cosmology. | |

2005 | Paul Nurse |
For his contributions to cell biology in general, and to the elucidation of the control of cell division. | |

2004 | Harry Kroto |
in recognition of his seminal contributions to understanding the fundamental dynamics of carbon chain molecules, leading to the detection of these species (polyynes) in the interstellar medium by radioastronomy, and thence to the genesis of a new era in carbon science. | |

2003 | John Gurdon |
For his unique range of groundbreaking discoveries in the fields of cell and developmental biology. He pioneered the concept that specialised cells are genetically equivalent and that they differ only in the genes they express not the genes they contain, a concept fundamental to modern biology. | |

2002 | John Pople |
For his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry. His work transformed density functional theory into a powerful theoretical tool for chemistry, chemical physics and biology. | |

2001 | Jacques Miller |
For his work on the immunological function of the thymus and of T cells, which has revolutionised the science of immunology. Professor Millers work is paving the way for designing new methods to improve resistance to infections, producing new vaccines, enhancing graft survival, dealing with autoimmunity and even persuading the immune system to reject cancer cells". | |

2000 | Alan R. Battersby |
In recognition of his pioneering work in elucidating the detailed biosynthetic pathways to all the major families of plant alkaloids. His approach, which stands as a paradigm for future biosynthetic studies on complex molecules, combines isolation work, structure determination, synthesis, isotopic labelling and spectroscopy, especially advanced NMR, as well as genetics and molecular biology. This spectacular research revealed the entire pathway to vitamin B12. | |

1999 | John Maynard Smith |
In recognition of his seminal contributions to evolutionary biology, including his experimental work on sexual selection, his important contributions to our understanding of ageing, his introduction of game theoretical methods for the analysis of complex evolutionary scenarios and his research into molecular evolution, both through his classic work on genetic hitchhiking, and with his more recent, ongoing work on bacterial population growth. | |

1998 | James Lighthill |
In recognition of his profound contributions to many fields within fluid mechanics including important aspects of the interaction of sound and fluid flow and numerous other contributions which have had practical applications in aircraft engine design. He is noted also for his ground-breaking work on both external bio-fluid-dynamics - analysis of mechanisms of swimming and flying - and internal bio-fluid-dynamics, including flow in the cardiovascular system and the airways, and cochlear mechanics and other aspects of hearing. | |

1997 | Hugh Huxley |
In recognition of his pioneering work on the structure of muscle and on the molecular mechanisms of muscle contraction, providing solutions to one of the great problems in physiology. | |

1996 | Alan Cottrell |
In recognition of his contribution to the understanding of mechanical properties of materials and related topics through his pioneering studies on crystal plasticity, dislocation impurity interactions, fracture and irradiation effects. | |

1995 | Frank Macfarlane Burnet |
In recognition of his contribution to animal virology with special emphasis on the pox and myxomatosis viruses and their relationship with the host in causing disease. | |

1994 | Frederick Charles Frank |
In recognition of his fundamental contribution to the theory of crystal morphology, in particular to the source of dislocations and their consequences in interfaces and crystal growth; to fundamental understanding of liquid crystals and the concept of disclination; and to the extension of crystallinity concepts to aperiodic crystals. He has also contributed through a variety of remarkable insights into a great number of physical problems. | |

1993 | James D. Watson |
In recognition of his tireless pursuit of DNA, from the elucidation of its structure to the social and medical implications of the sequencing of the human genome. | |

1992 | George Porter |
In recognition of his contributions to fundamental understanding of fast photochemical and photophysical processes and their role in chemistry and biology. | |

1991 | Sydney Brenner |
In recognition of his many contributions to molecular genetics and developmental biology, and his recent role in the Human Genome mapping project. | |

1990 | Abdus Salam |
In recognition of his work on the symmetries of the laws of nature, and especially the unification of the electromagnetic and weak forces. | |

1989 | César Milstein |
In recognition of his outstanding contributions to immunology, in particular to the discovery of monoclonal antibodies and to the understanding of the role of somatic mutations in the maturation of the immune response. | |

1988 | Michael Atiyah |
In recognition of his fundamental contributions to a wide range of topics in geometry, topology, analysis and theoretical physics. | |

1987 | Robin Hill |
In recognition of his pioneering contributions to the understanding of the nature and mechanism of the main pathway of electron transport in photosynthesis. | |

1986 | Rudolf Peierls |
In recognition of his fundamental contributions to a very wide range of theoretical physics, and signal advances in proposing the probable existence of nuclear chain reactions in fissile materials. | |

1985 | Aaron Klug |
In recognition of his outstanding contributions to our understanding of complex biological structures and the methods used for determining them. | |

1984 | Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar |
In recognition of his distinguished work on theoretical physics, including stellar structure, theory of radiation, hydrodynamic stability and relativity. | |

1983 | Rodney Robert Porter |
In recognition of his elucidation of the structure of immunoglobulins and of the reactions involved in activating the complement system of proteins. | |

1982 | John Cornforth |
In recognition of his distinguished research on the stereochemically-controlled synthesis and biosynthesis of biologically important molecules. | |

1981 | Peter D. Mitchell |
In recognition of his distinguished contribution to biology in his formulation and development of the chemiosmotic theory of energy transduction. | |

1980 | Derek Barton |
In recognition of his distinguished contributions to a wide range of problems in structural and synthetic organic chemistry and , in particular, his introduction of conformational analysis into stereochemistry. | |

1979 | Max Perutz |
In recognition of his distinguished contributions to molecular biology through his own studies of the structure and biological activity of haemoglobin and his leadership in the development of the subject. | |

1978 | Robert Burns Woodward |
In recognition of his masterly contributions to the synthesis of complex natural products and his discovery of the importance of orbital symmetry. | |

1977 | Frederick Sanger |
In recognition of his distinguished work on the chemical structure of proteins and his studies on the sequences of nucleic acids. | |

1976 | Dorothy Hodgkin |
In recognition of her outstanding work on the structures of complex molecules, particularly Penicillin, vitamin B12 and insulin. | |

1975 | Francis Crick |
In recognition of his elucidation of the structure of DNA and his continuing contribution to molecular biology. | |

1974 | W. V. D. Hodge |
In recognition of his pioneering work in algebraic geometry, notably in his theory of harmonic integrals. | |

1973 | Andrew Huxley |
In recognition of his outstanding studies on the mechanisms of the nerve impulse and of activation of muscular contraction. | |

1972 | Nevill Francis Mott |
In recognition of his original contributions over a long period to atomic and solid state physics. | |

1971 | Norman Pirie |
In recognition of his distinguished contributions to biochemistry and especially for his elucidation of the nature of plant viruses. | |

1970 | Alexander R. Todd, Baron Todd |
In recognition of his outstanding contributions to both the analytical and synthetic chemistry of natural products of diverse types. | |

1969 | Peter Medawar |
In recognition of his distinguished studies of tissue transplantation and immunological tolerance. | |

1968 | Tadeus Reichstein |
In recognition of his distinguished work on the chemistry of vitamin C and his authoritative studies of the cortico-steroids. | |

1967 | Bernard Katz |
In recognition of his distinguished contributions to knowledge of the fundamental processes involved in transmission across the neuromuscular junction. | |

1966 | William Lawrence Bragg |
In recognition of his distinguished contributions to the development of methods of structural determination by X-ray diffraction. | |

1965 | Alan Lloyd Hodgkin |
In recognition of his discovery of the mechanism of excitation and impulse conduction in nerve, and his outstanding leadership in the development of neurophysiology. | |

1964 | Sydney Chapman |
In recognition of his theoretical contributions to terrestrial and interplanetary magnetism, the ionosphere and the aurora borealis. | |

1963 | Paul Fildes |
In recognition of his pioneering contributions to bacteriology. | |

1962 | Cyril Norman Hinshelwood |
In recognition of his distinguished researches in the field of chemical kinetics, including the study of biological reaction mechanisms, and of his outstanding contributions to natural philosophy. | |

1961 | Hans Adolf Krebs |
In recognition of his distinguished contributions to biochemistry, in particular his work on the ornithine, tricarboxylic acid and glyoxylate cycles. | |

1960 | Harold Jeffreys |
In recognition of his distinguished work in many branches of geophysics, and also in the theory of probability and astronomy. | |

1959 | Frank Macfarlane Burnet |
In recognition of his distinguished contributions to knowledge of viruses and of immunology. | |

1958 | John Edensor Littlewood |
In recognition of his distinguished contributions to many branches of analysis, including Tauberian theory, the Riemann zeta function, and non-linear differential equations. | |

1957 | Howard Florey |
In recognition of his distinguished contributions to experimental pathology and medicine. | |

1956 | Patrick Blackett, Baron Blackett |
In recognition of his outstanding studies of cosmic ray showers and heavy mesons and in the field of palaeomagnetism. | |

1955 | Ronald Fisher |
In recognition of his numerous and distinguished contributions to developing the theory and application of statistics for making quantitative a vast field of biology. | |

1954 | E. T. Whittaker |
For his distinguished contributions to both pure and applied mathematics and to theoretical physics. | |

1953 | Albert Kluyver |
For his distinguished contributions of a fundamental character to the science of microbiology. | |

1952 | Paul Dirac |
In recognition of his remarkable contributions to relativistic dynamics of a particle in quantum mechanics. | |

1951 | David Keilin |
For his fundamental researches in the fields of protozoology, entomology and the biochemistry of enzymes. | |

1950 | James Chadwick |
For his outstanding work in nuclear physics and in the development of atomic energy, especially for his discovery of the neutron. | |

1949 | George de Hevesy |
For his distinguished work on the chemistry of radioactive elements and especially for his development of the radioactive tracer techniques in the investigation of biological processes. | |

1948 | Archibald Hill |
For his distinguished researches on myothermal problems and on biophysical phenomena in nerve and other tissues. | |

1947 | G. H. Hardy |
For his distinguished part in the development of mathematical analysis in England during the last thirty years. | |

1946 | Edgar Adrian, 1st Baron Adrian |
For his distinguished researches on the fundamental nature of nervous activity, and recently on the localization of certain nervous functions. | |

1945 | Oswald Avery |
For his success in introducing chemical methods in the study of immunity against infective diseases. | |

1944 | G. I. Taylor |
For his many contributions to aerodynamics, hydrodynamics, and the structure of metals, which have had a profound influence on the advance of physical science and its applications. | |

1943 | Joseph Barcroft |
For his distinguished work on respiration and the respiratory function of the blood. | |

1942 | Robert Robinson |
For his research work of outstanding originality and brilliance which has influenced the whole field of organic chemistry. | |

1941 | Thomas Lewis |
For his clinical and experimental investigations upon the mammalian heart. | |

1940 | Paul Langevin |
For his pioneer work on the electron theory of magnetism, his fundamental contributions to discharge of electricity in gases, and his important work in many branches of theoretical physics. | |

1939 | Thomas Hunt Morgan |
For his establishment of the modern science of genetics which had revolutionized our understanding, not only of heredity, but of the mechanism and nature of evolution. | |

1938 | Niels Henrik David Bohr |
In recognition of his distinguished work in the development of the quantum theory of atomic structure. | |

1937 | Henry Hallett Dale |
In recognition of his important contributions to physiology and pharmacology, particularly in relation to the nervous and neuro-muscular systems. | |

1936 | Arthur Evans |
In recognition of his pioneer work in Crete, particularly his contributions to the history and civilization of its Minoan age. | |

1935 | Charles Thomson Rees Wilson |
For his work on the use of clouds in advancing our knowledge of atoms and their properties. | |

1934 | John Scott Haldane |
In recognition of his discoveries in human physiology and of their application to medicine, mining, diving and engineering. | |

1933 | Theobald Smith |
For his original research and observation on diseases of animals and man. | |

1932 | George Ellery Hale |
For his distinguished work on the solar magnetic phenomena and for his eminence as a scientific engineer, especially in connexion with Mount Wilson Observatory. | |

1931 | Arthur Schuster |
For his distinguished researches in optics and terrestrial magnetism. | |

1930 | William Henry Bragg |
For his distinguished contributions to crystallography and radioactivity. | |

1929 | Max Planck |
For his contributions to theoretical physics and especially as the originator of the quantum theory. | |

1928 | Charles Algernon Parsons |
For his contributions to engineering science. | |

1927 | Charles Scott Sherrington |
For his distinguished work on neurology. | |

1926 | Frederick Gowland Hopkins |
For his distinguished and fruitful work in biochemistry. | |

1925 | Albert Einstein |
For his theory of relativity and his contributions to the quantum theory. | |

1924 | Edward Albert Sharpey-Schafer |
For the valuable work he has done in physiology and histology and the position he now occupies as a leader in these sciences. | |

1923 | Horace Lamb |
For his researches in mathematical physics. | |

1922 | Ernest Rutherford |
For his researches in radio activity & atomic structure. | |

1921 | Joseph Larmor |
For his researches in mathematical physics. | |

1920 | Horace Tabberer Brown |
On the ground of his work on the chemistry of carbohydrates, &c. | |

1919 | William Bayliss |
On the ground of his researches in general physiology & biophysics. | |

1918 | Hendrik Lorentz |
On the ground of his distinguished researches in mathematical physics. | |

1917 | Pierre Paul Émile Roux |
On the ground of his eminence as a bacteriologist, and as a pioneer in serum therapy. | |

1916 | James Dewar |
For his important investigations in physical chemistry, more especially his researches on the liquefaction of gases. | |

1915 | Ivan Pavlov |
On the ground of his investigations in the physiology of digestion and of the higher centres of the nervous system. | |

1914 | Joseph John Thomson |
On the ground of his discoveries in physical science. | |

1913 | Ray Lankester |
On the ground of the high scientific value of the researches in zoology carried out by him. | |

1912 | Felix Klein |
On the ground of his researches in mathematics. | |

1911 | George Darwin |
On the ground of his researches on tidal theory, the figures of the planets, and allied subjects. | |

1910 | Francis Galton |
On the ground of his researches in heredity. | |

1909 | George William Hill |
On the ground of his researches in mathematical astronomy. | |

1908 | Alfred Russel Wallace |
On the ground of the great value of his numerous contributions to natural history, and of the part he took in working out the theory of the origin of species by natural selection. | |

1907 | Albert Abraham Michelson |
On the ground of his investigations in optics. | |

1906 | Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov |
On the ground of the importance of his work in zoology and in pathology. | |

1905 | Dmitri Mendeleev |
For his contributions to chemical and physical science. | |

1904 | William Crookes |
For his long-continued researches in spectroscopic chemistry, on electrical & mechanical phenomena in highly-rarefied gases, on radio-active phenomena, and other subjects. | |

1903 | Eduard Suess |
For his eminent geological services, & especially for the original researches & conclusions published in his great work Das Antlitz der Erde. | |

1902 | Joseph Lister |
In recognition of the value of his physiological and pathological researches in regard to their influence on the modern practice of surgery. | |

1901 | J. Willard Gibbs |
For his contributions to mathematical physics. | |

1900 | Marcellin Berthelot |
For his brilliant services to chemical science. | |

1899 | John William Strutt |
In recognition of his contributions to physical science. | |

1898 | William Huggins |
For his researches in spectrum analysis applied to the heavenly bodies. | |

1897 | Albert von Kölliker |
In recognition of his important work in embryology, comparative anatomy, and physiology, and especially for his eminence as a histologist. | |

1896 | Karl Gegenbaur |
For his life-long researches in comparative anatomy in all branches of the animal kingdom. etc., etc. | |

1895 | Karl Weierstrass |
For his investigations in pure mathematics. | |

1894 | Edward Frankland |
For his eminent services to theoretical & applied chemistry. | |

1893 | Sir George Stokes, 1st Baronet |
For his researches and discoveries in physical science. | |

1892 | Rudolf Virchow |
For his investigations in pathology, pathological anatomy, and prehistoric archaeology. | |

1891 | Stanislao Cannizzaro |
For his contributions to chemical philosophy especially for his application of Avogadros theory. | |

1890 | Simon Newcomb |
For his contributions to the progress of gravitational astronomy. | |

1889 | George Salmon |
For his various papers on subjects of pure mathematics, and for the valuable mathematical treatises of which he is the author. | |

1888 | Thomas Huxley |
For his investigations on the morphology and histology of vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and for his services to biological science in general during many past years. | |

1887 | Joseph Dalton Hooker |
For his services to botanical science as an investigator, author, and traveller. | |

1886 | Franz Ernst Neumann |
For his researches in theoretical optics and electro-dynamics. | |

1885 | August Kekulé |
For his researches in organic chemistry. | |

1884 | Carl Ludwig Siegel |
For his investigations in physiology, and the great services which he has rendered to physiological science. | |

1883 | William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin |
For (1) his discovery of the law of the universal dissipation of energy; (2) his researches and eminent services in physics, both experimental & mathematical, especially in the theory of electricity and thermodynamics. | |

1882 | Arthur Cayley |
For his numerous profound and comprehensive researches in pure mathematics. | |

1881 | Charles-Adolphe Wurtz |
For his discovery of the organic ammonias, the glycols, and other investigations which have exercised considerable influence on the progress of chemistry. | |

1880 | James Joseph Sylvester |
For his long continued investigations & discoveries in mathematics. | |

1879 | Rudolf Clausius |
For his well-known researches upon heat. | |

1878 | Jean-Baptiste Boussingault |
For his long-continued and important researches and discoveries in agricultural chemistry. | |

1877 | James Dwight Dana |
For his biological, geological, and mineralogical investigations, carried on through half a century, and for the valuable works in which his conclusions and discoveries have been published. | |

1876 | Claude Bernard |
For his numerous contributions to the science of physiology. | |

1875 | August Wilhelm von Hofmann |
For his numerous contributions to the science of chemistry, and especially for his researches on the derivatives of ammonia. | |

1874 | Louis Pasteur |
For his researches on fermentation and on pelerine. | |

1873 | Hermann von Helmholtz |
For his researches in physics and physiology. | |

1872 | Friedrich Wöhler |
For his numerous contributions to the science of chemistry, and more especially for his researches on the products of the decomposition of cyanogens by ammonia; on the derivatives of uric acid; on the benzoyl series; on boron, silicon, & their compounds; and on meteoric stones. | |

1871 | Julius von Mayer |
For his researches on the mechanics of heat; including essays on: - 1. The force of inorganic nature. 2. Organic motion in connection with nutrition. 3. Fever. 4. Celestial dynamics. 5. The mechanical equivalent of heat. | |

1870 | James Prescott Joule |
For his experimental researches on the dynamical theory of heat. | |

1869 | Henri Victor Regnault |
For the second volume of his Relation des Experiences pour determiner les lois et les donnees physiques necessaries au calcul des machines a feu, including his elaborate investigations on the specific heat of gases and vapours, and various papers on the elastic force of vapours. | |

1868 | Charles Wheatstone |
For his researches in acoustics, optics, electricity and magnetism. | |

1867 | Karl Ernst von Baer |
For his discoveries in embryology and comparative anatomy, and for his contributions to the philosophy of zoology. | |

1866 | Julius Plücker |
For his researches in analytical geometry, magnetism, & spectral analysis. | |

1865 | Michel Chasles |
For his historical and original researches in pure geometry. | |

1864 | Charles Darwin |
For his important researches in geology, zoology, and botanical physiology. | |

1863 | Adam Sedgwick |
For his original observations and discoveries in the geology of the Palaeozoic Series of rocks, and more especially for his determination of the characters of the Devonian System, by observations of the order of superposition of the Killas rocks & their fossils in Devonshire. | |

1862 | Thomas Graham |
For three memoirs of the diffusion of liquids, published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1850 and 1851; for a memoir on osmotic force in the Philosophical Transactions for 1854; and particularly for a paper on liquid diffusion applied to analysis, including a distinction of compounds into colloids & crystalloids published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1861. | |

1861 | Louis Agassiz |
For his eminent researches in palaeontology and other branches of science, and particularly for his great works the Poissons Fossiles, and his Poissons du Vieux Gres Rouge dEcosse. | |

1860 | Robert Bunsen |
For his researches on cacodyls, gaseous analysis, the Voltaire phenomena of Iceland; and other researches. | |

1859 | Wilhelm Eduard Weber |
For the investigations contained in his Maasbestimmungen and other researches in electricity, magnetism, acoustics, &c. | |

1858 | Charles Lyell |
For his various researches and writings by which he has contributed to the advance of geology. | |

1857 | Michel Eugène Chevreul |
For his researches in organic chemistry, particularly on the composition of the fats, andf for his researches on the contrast of coulours. | |

1856 | Henri Milne-Edwards |
For his researches in comparative anatomy and zoology. | |

1855 | Léon Foucault |
For his various researches in experimental physics. | |

1854 | Johannes Peter Müller |
For his important contributions to different branches of physiology and comparative anatomy, and particularly for his researches on the embryology of the Echinodermata, contained in a series of memoirs published in the Transactions of the Royal Academy of Sciences of Berlin. | |

1853 | Heinrich Wilhelm Dove |
For his work on the distribution of heat over the surface of the Earth. | |

1852 | Alexander von Humboldt |
For his eminent services in terrestrial physics, during a series of years. | |

1851 | Richard Owen |
On account of his important discoveries in comparative anatomy & palaeontology, contained in the Philosophical Transactions and numerous other works. | |

1850 | Peter Andreas Hansen |
For his researches in physical astronomy. |