Thomas Thomson was a Scottish surgeon with the British East India Company before becoming a botanist. He was a friend of Joseph Dalton Hooker and helped write the first volume of Flora Indica.
He was born in Glasgow the son of Thomas Thomson, chemistry professor at Glasgow University. He became Superintendent of the Honourable East India Company's Botanic Garden at Calcutta and was the Naturalist to and Member of the Tibet Mission. He was also a Surgeon in the Bengal Army. He died in Calcutta, India, on 18 April 1878.